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Muscle Strain

A muscle strain also known as muscle pull is a partial or complete tear of a muscle or tendon. The most commonly strained muscles are those that cross two joints during an eccentric, rather than concentric, contraction. Lower limb muscles such as rectus femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductors, hamstrings, and medial head of the gastrocnemius are frequently injured. Muscle strain more commonly occurs at the myotendinous junction, the weakest link in
the muscle.
Presently there is no suitable classification for muscle strains. Unlike ligament injuries, partial disruption of a muscle tendon unit is difficult to assess with mechanical testing; use of a scale similar to the ligament injury classification is therefore not exact.
The physical examination findings that can be assessed in a strain are tenderness, muscle strength, swelling, ecchymosis, and the presence of a defect in the muscle-tendon unit.

Classification of muscle strain injuries

Injury TypeSwellingDefect
Interstitial strainAbsentAbsent
Intramuscular strainPresentAbsent
Partial rupturePresentPresent, incomplete
Complete rupturePresentPresent, complete loss
of continuity